EPIX, Emergency Preparedness Information Exchange, British Columbia, Canada
Salmonella gallinarum infection primarily causes disease in chickens and turkeys, but ducks, pheasants, guinea-fowl, peafowl, grouse, and quail can also be affected. It is one of a group of diseases in poultry caused by Salmonella species which include Pullorum Disease, Arizona infection, and Paratyphoid Infection. Due to extensive testing and control by the poultry producers, Fowl Typhoid is rare in countries with a modern poultry industry. The disease has gained incidence in South America and other countries throughout Africa and Asia in recent year. Canada and the United States are presently free of the disease. This bacteria limits itself to avian species and is not known to cause disease in humans.
Outbreaks are characterized by increased mortality, anorexia, and a drop in egg production. A watery to mucoid yellow diarrhea is characteristic, and the birds are depressed with rapid breathing. Subacute outbreaks can occur, and egg transmission may lead to increased dead or weak chicks. Recovered birds may be carriers.
Control is related to blood testing for S. Pullorum, as the common antigenic structure of the bacteria leads to cross reaction. Elimination of pullorum positive reactors will effectively decrease S. gallinarum infection. National programs in many countries have virtually eliminated this and Pullorum disease.