Goodness Grows In North Carolina
Corn Outline

Association Name Commodity History Regional Information Production
Packaging Shipping Buying Nutritional Information

I. Association Name: NC Corn Growers Association

A. Commodity Represented

B. Types of Commodity
There are many seed varieties of field corn and garden corn is basically yellow and white.

C. Is there a National Promotion Month for the Commodity? When?
Not for corn

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II. Commodity History

A. North Carolina Background
1. Is the crop originally from NC or did it originate elsewhere? Where?
Corn is native to North Carolina. The settlers discovered Native Americans already growing corn. There are no crops originally from North Carolina.

2. When was it brought to NC?
The settlers discovered Native Americans already growing corn.

3. How was it brought to NC and by whom?
It's unknown how it originally came to North Carolina.

4. Was it brought to a specific region? Is this the same region in which it is now mainly grown?
Settlers discovered Native Americans growing corn in various sections of North Carolina.

B. Uses
1. How is the product used?
Corn and corn by-products are used in animal feeds, cornstarch, corn oil, corn sweeteners, and ethanol.

2. Has today's use changed from its original use?
Technology has altered the many uses of corn.

3. If yes, how was it originally used and why was there a shift in use?
Originally corn was grown for animal consumption and ground into corn meal to be processed into food products.

C. Industry Changes
1. How has technology changed the industry? What are some of these improvements/changes?
Advanced processing technology has increased the many by-products of corn.

2. How have the uses for the product changed over the years?
Corn is now processed into high frutose corn syrup and ethanol.

3. Has consumption/use of the product increased/decreased? Why?
Corn consumption continues to increase due to the domestic and global demand.

D. Future Outlook
1. How is the industry changing currently?
More export demand and increasing industrial use.

2. Are there any future projects that would change how the industry is maintained?
Genetic engineering will increase production capabilities.

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III. Regional Information

A. Region
1. Where in the state is the commodity grown?
A large percentage of total production is in the coastal plains.

2. If more than one location, where is it the most abundant? The least abundant?
It's wide spread throughout the coastal plains.

3. Why can't it be grown in another section of the state? Or why the difference in production from area to area?
Corn can't be grown in other regions of the state, but the rich soil in the coastal plain is optimal.

4. When is the growing season?
April to late August and early September

B. Climate
1. What kind of weather does the commodity like?
Moderate temperatures in ample moisture during the pollination period.

2. Is there a specific condition the commodity needs (full sun, shade, etc.)?
Full sun

3. Are there ideal temperatures the commodity needs?
Moderate temperatures are best for corn.

C. Soil
1. What type of soil works best with this commodity? Why? Is it rich in a specific nutrient, etc.?
Corn grows best in soil containing high organic matter, which retains moisture longer.

2. Is there an ideal temperature for the soil?
Moderate temperature with adequate moisture.

3. Do certain soil conditions increase crop production? If yes, what are they?
Corn grows best in soil containing high organic matter, which retains moisture longer.

D. Weather Conditions
1. In emergency weather conditions what precautions are taken? Are precautions usually preventative (advance) or reactive (as it occurs)?

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IV. Production

A. Production Steps
1. When are seeds planted?
Corn is normally planted in April to early May.

2. What is the estimated time before sprouts appear?
Depending on the soil temperature and moisture, 7 to 10 days.

3. How long generally before the crop is ready to be harvested?
Generally 185 days.

4. Once the crop is taken from the ground where does it go? Is it stored somewhere before it is ready for use? Or does it get packaged right away? If stored, what is it stored in and why?
Corn can be stored on the farm in grain bins or sold to processors.

B. Production Materials
1. Is there any special equipment used during the whole production process? What are they?
Corn is harvested with a grain combine.

2. How was the production process handled before technological developments? What types of machines, if any, were used in the process?
Prior to grain combines, the corn ear was pulled by hand and carried to a corn sheller.

3. Are pesticides used in crop production? What are the most common types?
Herbicides are used to control grass weeds and insecticides are used to control insects.

C. Grading
1. Is there an inspection that the product must go through before being packaged/sold?

2. Is the inspection conducted by county, state, or national officials?
When inspection is necessary State Officials from the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services conduct the inspection.

3. What agency is responsible for the grading/testing and setting the standards?
USDA establishes all grain standards.

4. How is the grading done? Is it for each individual piece, or per field, per farm, etc.?
When corn is graded, a representative sample is obtained from the truck.

5. Give a basic breakdown of the scale used and what it means.
Grain standards are set according to weight, foreign material, and damage.

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V. Packaging

A. Is the product usually sold fresh, frozen, dried, etc.?
N/A. Does not apply to field crops.

B. If product is sold in a variety of ways what is the most common in NC?

C. Is the product packaged? If yes, how? (bags, boxes, bottles, etc)

D. Why is it done this way? Is it economical, prevents bruising, industry standard or for shipping purposes, etc.?

VI. Shipping

A. Distribution
1. What is the most common method of distribution in your industry?
Corn is shipped by truck and rail.

2. Is the product sold mainly to retail, foodservice, wholesale, specialty outlets or a variety of outlets? What is the most common?

3. Does the product go to one place, then another before ending up on a grocery store shelf or restaurant? If yes, where does it go?

4. Is the commodity exported? Domestically, internationally?
There is no grain export facility in North Carolina.

B. Transporting
1. How is the commodity normally transported (from farm to retail outlet)?
Corn is shipped by truck and rail.

2. Does the transportation vehicle require special features? (Refrigeration, etc.)

3. Have methods of transportation changed over the years? (Before automobiles, etc. how was it transported?) Or has method of transportation stayed the same? And if so, how is it done?
Transportation has advanced with technology.

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VII. Buying

A. Product
1. What is the product used for? Are there different uses?
Corn and corn by products are used in animal feeds, cornstarch, corn oil, corn sweeteners, and ethanol.

2. When purchasing/inspecting the commodity (at the store) how do you know it is fresh?
3. Is there a trick to buying and finding ripe/fresh product? (Smell, thumping, shaking, color etc.)

B. Labels
1. Is your product required to carry a label?

2. Is there an industry standard for the label, or is it individualized for each company/producer/grower?

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VIII. Nutritional Information

A. Food Pyramid
1. What group of the food pyramid does the commodity fall into?

2. Is there a recommended daily allowance of this? What is it?
Three to five servings

B. What nutrients are found in the commodity? How is it helpful?
Corn is a high carbohydrate vegetable which helps with energy production. Corn is also fat-free, cholesterol-free and low in calories.

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Other Links:
Official NCDA&CS Markets Grains and Oil Seeds Page